In Slovakia there are no specialized courts which are concerned exclusively with construction disputes. Thus, any construction disputes are tried by 'general' district courts. The administration of justice is governed by a two-tier system which means that any disputes relating to the contract for construction works arising between a contractor and a client fall within the jurisdiction of district courts being first-instance courts.
In general, a party may appeal against the decision rendered by a district court. The second instance is then exercised by regional courts being appellate courts. An appeal against a decision rendered by a district court is the only ordinary legal remedy available. Although, the Civil Procedure Act provides for extraordinary legal remedies such as the reopening of a case and appellate review however, these can be filed only if specific statutory conditions are met.
The Croatian Obligations Act (Zakon o obveznim odnosima, Official Gazette Nos. 35/05, 41/08, 125/11 and 78/15) regulates contracts for the carrying out of building works (building contracts) as well as contracts for the design of building works, which are in general considered to be service agreements. In addition, the code of practice in construction, which was adopted in 1977, is still applicable as a customary law source and is, in accordance with the general principles of the Croatian Obligations Act, applicable if the contracting parties (where both are commercial entities) do not exclude it or, where private individuals contract, where the parties agree that it will apply. However, due to technical and contractual developments since 1977, this code of practice lost its importance and a new code is being prepared to take into consideration current legislation and practice.
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